Antibodies (Abs) are protective proteins produced naturally by the lymphocytes in the body as a reaction to the detection of a foreign substance (antigen). Antibodies recognize and latch onto antigens in a powerful and specific antibody-antigen reaction to eliminate them from the body. As a result, they are integral in removing harmful viruses, bacteria, and potential toxins and protect against conditions such as cancer by boosting the overall immune system. Like the synthetic human recombinant il 2, some have mainly been a game-changer in treating metastasized melanoma and renal cell carcinoma.
A Brief History of Antibody Use in Research
The chain of events leading to the discovery of antibodies began in 1890 with Emil von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato. The duo discovered that diphtheria could be successfully treated and prevented in animals using serum from animals already infected with it. The idea of the existence of antibodies materialized in 1900 when Paul Ehrlich, one of the founding fathers of modern immunology, advanced the notion that cells had side chains that could link to specific toxins. After that, the 20th century saw a series of significant leaps in technology related to antibody production and use in research. Antibodies move rapidly from unidentified proteins to invaluable research and therapy assets.
Traditional polyclonal (pAbs) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) dominated and catapulted progress in various research fields. In recent years, the entry of recombinant antibodies (rAbs) is expected to complement further and boost progress levels in research and therapy. They come with several notable advantages, which we shall highlight later in this article compared to pAbs and mAbs. Most researchers are now opting for rAbs as they overcome the limitations of the other two methods due to the ongoing replicability crisis.
What are Recombinant Antibodies
Recombinant antibodies (rAbs), genetically engineered antibodies, are a type of monoclonal antibody generated through in-vitro manipulation at a genomic level. RAbs does not involve immunizing an animal with an antigen to elicit an immune reaction, unlike its traditional counterparts. Instead, they are introduced into host cell lines for antibody expression using molecular biology techniques. A range of cell lines can be appropriate for use, including mammalian, yeast, bacterial, or insect origin.
Advantages of Recombinant Antibodies
Recombinant antibodies have a wide range of advantages that have made them gradually continue to gain preference among most researchers. We’ll highlight some of the most common ones below.
Unrivaled Consistency and Replicability
Unlike their traditional counterparts, the production of recombinant antibodies involves a set of unique genes. This makes their production highly controllable and reliable. You can avoid problems like gene loss, gene mutation, and cell-line drift common with hybridoma production, leading to mitigated batch-to-batch differences and consistent results.
Elevated Sensitivity and Specificity
Producing recombinant antibodies allows for more straightforward antibody engineering and selecting the most preferred antibody quality. Various validation methods, such as knockout specificity, can ensure maximum confidence in the anticipated results.
Recombinant antibodies from synthetic or human antibody libraries don’t involve animal immunity. This eliminates ethical concerns about animal welfare associated with traditional antibody production techniques such as euthanasia and immunizations.
Easy to Manipulate
In the traditional antibody production methods, researchers have no control over the antigen they are making antibodies against soon after injecting it into the animal. There are many trial and error aspects with animal-based antibody production and no guarantee that a suitable antibody has been created. On the other hand, recombinant antibody production methods allow for comprehensive monitoring and control over the antigen throughout the production process.
Easy Isotope Conversion
The recombinant antibody production method allows for sequence modification to suit particular needs once the desired fragment has been established.
Application Areas of Recombinant Antibodies
Recombinant antibodies are new in biomedical science and toxicological research, and their opportunities are just starting to unravel. Some of the treatment breakthroughs associated with them at the moment include;
Recombinant antibodies have proven to be an effective therapy in treating cancers like liver, kidney, and those related to blood through the suppression of tumors. They have a unique way of enriching effector cells and other immune activation aspects within the tumors hence playing the killer role.
Auto immune diseases
Recombinant antibody medicines have proven to be effective in inhibiting excessive immune responses against cytokine release and the activation of inflammatory cells. This makes it effective in treating and managing autoimmune illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, and multiple sclerosis.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative illness with no effective treatment or preventive measure. However, recombinant antibody medicines have shown promise for improving cognitive impairment and clearing Aβ plaques (one of the two lesions used to diagnose AD) in the brain.
Humanized antibodies have demonstrated significant benefits in treating and managing various viral diseases such as AIDS, hepatitis, and respiratory virus infections. Currently, the effect of humanized antibodies on a host of other viral diseases like rabies and influenza is in their experimental stages.
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases
Recombinant antibody drugs given alongside anticoagulant and antiplatelet functions have been proven to help treat and manage cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
The bottom line is that recombinant antibodies result from continuous improvements of the traditional antibodies and, as such, make up for most of their limitations. More research on them is ongoing, and it’s only a matter of time before their maximum potential is realized in the effective treatment and prevention of more illnesses. At Shenandoah Biotech, we’ve made it our mission to actively support this noble cause since we began back in 2006. We have a team of a dedicated and diverse group of experienced scientists working tirelessly in our lab daily. Besides manufacturing recombinant proteins from E.coli, we also provide a range of customized services. Learn more about us and our products through our website at https://www.shenandoah-bt.com/human-il-2.html .
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